Saturday, February 5, 2011

Ingredient Substitution List

Ever find yourself in the middle of making dinner when you realize you are missing a necessary ingredient?
This could especially be the case in an emergency while you were forced to live off of your food storage.

Here is a helpful list with several alternatives for missing ingredients.


Ingredient Substitution List
Food Item
Use
Substitute

A
Allspice

1 tsp. = ½ tsp. cinnamon + ½ tsp. ground cloves
Apple Pie Spice

1 tsp. = ½ tsp. cinnamon + ¼ tsp. nutmeg + 1/8 tsp. cardamom

1 tsp. = ½ tsp. cinnamon + ½ tsp. ground cloves
Arrowroot
Thicken
1 tsp. = 1 Tbsp. flour
1 tsp. = ½ Tbsp. corn starch
B
Baking Powder
Baking
1 tsp. = ¼ tsp. baking soda + ½ tsp. cream of tartar
1 tsp. = ¼ tsp. baking soda + ½ c. sour milk or buttermilk or yogurt.  Decrease liquid called for in recipe by ½ c.
1 tsp. = ¼ tsp. baking soda + ¼ - ½ c. molasses.  Decrease liquid in recipe by 1-2 Tbsp.
Beau Monde Seasoning

1 tsp. = 1 tsp. seasoning / seasoned salt or ½ tsp. table salt
Bell Pepper

1 Tbsp. dried = 3 Tbsp. chopped fresh
Bread Crumbs

Equal amounts of cracker crumbs or cornmeal or crushed corn flakes or crushed quick-cooking oats
Broth (or Stock)
Any
1 c. = 1 c. consomme
1 c. = 1 bouillon cube (1 tsp.) dissolved in 1 c. water
Soup
1 c. = 1 c. water or milk.  If milk is used, soup will be creamier with a whitish color.
Butter
Baking
1 c. = 7/8 c. shortening, oil, or lard + ½ tsp. salt
1 c. margarine
1 c. = 1 c. applesauce (best in cookies and cakes) – will make more moist
Buttermilk
Any
1 c. = 1 Tbsp. lemon juice + milk to fill up 1 c.  Set aside for 5 minutes.  Stir before use.
1 c. = 1 c. milk + 1 ¾ tsp. cream of tartar
1 c. = 1 c. yogurt or sour cream
C
Capers

1 Tbsp. = 1 Tbsp. chopped green olives
Carob

3 Tbsp. = 3 Tbsp. cocoa
Chili Sauce

1 c. = 1 c. tomato sauce + ¼ c. brown sugar + 2 Tbsp. vinegar + ¼ tsp. cinnamon + dash ground cloves + dash allspice
Chili Seasoning

2 parts chili powder + 1 part paprika
Chives

Equal amounts of green onion tops
Chocolate, Semi-sweet
Baking
1 2/3 oz. = 1 oz. unsweetened chocolate + 4 tsp. sugar
Chocolate, unsweetened
Baking
1 square chocolate (1 oz.) = 3 Tbsp. cocoa + 1 Tbsp. fat (shortening)
1 oz. = 3 Tbsp. carob + 2 Tbsp. water
Cinnamon, ground

1 tsp. = ½ tsp. ground all spice or cardamom
Cocoa

¼ c. = 1 oz. chocolate.  Decrease ½ Tbsp. of fat in recipe.
Coconut Cream

1 c. = 1 c. whipped cream
Coconut Milk

1 c. = 1 c. whole milk
Corn Syrup, dark
Any
1 c. dark corn syrup = 1 c. simple syrup (2 parts sugar and 1 part water – dissolve sugar in water)
1 c. dark corn syrup = 3 parts light corn syrup + 1 part molasses
1 c. dark corn syrup = 1 c. golden syrup
Corn Syrup, light
Any
1 c. light corn syrup = 1 c. honey.  Honey will make product sweeter
1 c. light corn syrup = 1 c. molasses
1 c. light corn syrup = 1 c. golden syrup
1 c. light corn syrup = 1 c. dark corn syrup.  Product will have more pronounced flavor.
1 c. light corn syrup = 1 c. simple syrup (2 parts sugar and 1 part water – dissolve sugar in water)
Cornmeal, self rising

1 c. = 1 c. plain cornmeal + 1 ½ Tbsp. baking powder + ½ tsp. salt
Cornstarch
Thicken
1 Tbsp. = 2 Tbsp. Flour
1 Tbsp. = 1 tsp. quick cooking tapioca
Cracker Crumbs

¾ c. cracker crumbs = 1 c. bread crumbs
Cream, heavy

1 c. = 1/3 c. butter + ¾ c. milk – do not whip
Cream, light

1 c. = 7/8 c. milk + 4 Tbsp. butter
Cream Cheese

1 c. = 1 c. plain yogurt strained overnight in cheesecloth
Equal amounts of: part skim milk, ricotta cheese or lowfat cottage cheese beaten until smooth
Cream of Tartar

½ tsp. = 1 ½ tsp. lemon juice or vinegar
Crème Fraiche

1 c. = 1 c. heavy cream + 1 Tbsp. plain yogurt.  Sit for 6 hours at room temperature
Curry Powder

Combine equal parts coriander, cumin, pepper, turmeric and ginger
E
Eggs
Any
Powdered Eggs – measurements vary by brand – check pkg. label for directions
Baking
1 egg in every 3 can be replaced with 1 Tbsp. cornstarch or 4 extra Tbsp. of liquid used in recipe
1 egg = 1 Tbsp. unflavored gelatin + 3 Tbsp. cold water + 3 Tbsp. boiling water.  Soften gelatin in cold water.  Add boiling water.  Cool and beat until frothy.  Add to recipe.  Reduce other liquid in recipe by 2 Tbsp.
Cakes & Cookies Only
1 egg = 1 Tbsp. water + 1 Tbsp. vinegar + ½ tsp. baking powder
For recipes that call for 2-3 eggs = 2 Tbsp. flour + ½ Tbsp. shortening + ½ tsp. baking powder + 2 Tbsp. liquid (increase liquid called for in recipe)
F
Flour, All Purpose
Baking
1 c. sifted = 1 c. + 2 Tbsp. sifted cake flour
1 c. sifted = 1 ½ c. bread crumbs
1 c. sifted = 1 c. rolled oats
1 c. sifted = 1 c. rye or rice flour
1 c. sifted = 1/3 c. cornmeal +2/3 c. flour
1 c. sifted = ¾ c. whole wheat flour + ¼ c. flour
Thicken
1 Tbsp. = 1 ½ tsp. cornstarch, arrowroot, potato or rice starch
1 Tbsp. = 1 Tbsp. granular tapioca
1 Tbsp. = 1 egg, 2 egg whites, or 2 egg yolks
1 Tbsp. = 1 ½ Tbsp. whole-wheat flour
Flour, Cake
Baking
1 c. = 2 Tbsp. cornstarch + bread flour to fill 1 c.  Sift 3 times
1 c. sifted = 1 c. – 2 Tbsp. sifted all-purpose flour
Flour, Self Rising

1 c. = 1 ½ tsp. baking powder + ½ tsp. salt + flour to fill up 1 c. total
Flour, Whole Wheat
Any
1 c. = 1 c. white wheat flour or graham flour
Substitute whole wheat flour for ¼ - ½ of the white flour called for in a recipe
G
Garlic
Any
1 clove = 1/8 tsp. garlic powder or instant minced garlic
1 clove = ½ - 1 tsp. garlic salt.  Reduce amount of salt called for in recipe
Gelatin, Flavored

3 oz. pkg. = 1 Tbsp. plain gelatin + 2 c. fruit juice
Ginger

1 Tbsp. raw ginger = 1/8 tsp. powdered
1 Tbsp. raw =  1 Tbsp. candied ginger, rinsed in water to remove sugar and finely chopped
Graham Cracker Crust

8-9” pie = 2 c. crushed corn flakes + 1/3 c. melted butter + 2 Tbsp. sugar.  Gradually add butter to crushed flakes and sugar.  Mix well and press into 8-9” pie plate.  Bake 350o for 10 minutes.
H
Half and Half (cream)
Any
1 c. = 3 Tbsp. + 1 ½ tsp. melted butter + whole milk to fill up 1 c.
Equal amounts of evaporated milk
Herbs, fresh
Any
1 Tbsp. fresh herbs = 1 tsp. dried herbs
Herbs de Provence

3+ Tbsp. = 4 tsp. thyme + 4 tsp. savory + 2 tsp. lavender + 1 tsp. rosemary
Honey
Baking
1 c. = 1 ¼ c. sugar (granulated or brown).  Increase a liquid in recipe by ¼ c. and reduce baking soda (if used) by ½ tsp.  Cookies will not be as soft if sugar is substituted for honey.
1 c. honey = 1 c. corn syrup
1 c. honey = 1 c. molasses
I
Italian Seasoning

1 ½ tsp. = ¼ tsp. of each: dried oregano, dried marjoram, dried basil + 1/8 tsp. dried sage
K
Ketchup
Cooking
1 c. = 1 c. tomato sauce + ½ c. brown sugar + 2 Tbsp. vinegar optional: ¼ tsp. cinnamon + pinch of ground cloves + pinch of allspice.
L
Leeks

½ c. sliced = ½ c. sliced shallots or green onions or onions
Lemon Juice

1 tsp. = ½ tsp. vinegar
Lemon Peel (zest)
Any
1 tsp. = ½ tsp. lemon extract or 2 Tbsp. lemon juice
1 medium onion = 2-3 Tbsp. juice and 1-2 tsp. rind
1 tsp. dried lemon peel = 1-2 tsp. grated fresh (1 medium lemon) or ½ tsp. lemon extract
Lime Juice

1 tsp. = 1 tsp. vinegar or white wine or lemon juice
Lime Zest

Equal amounts of lemon zest
M
Maple Sugar
Baking
½ c. = 1 c. maple syrup
1 Tbsp. (grated and packed) = 1 Tbsp. white granulated sugar
Maple Syrup
Baking
¾ c. = 1 c. granulated sugar.  Increase liquid in recipe by 3 Tbsp. per cup of sugar.  If baking soda is used, decrease amount by ¼ tsp. per cup of sugar substituted.
Any
2 c. = 2 c. sugar + 1 c. water + ½ tsp. maple flavoring.  Combine sugar and water and bring to boil.  Remove from heat.  Add flavoring.
Marjoram
Any
1 tsp. = 1 tsp. oregano
Marshmallows
Any
1 c. miniature marshmallows = 10 large marshmallows
10 miniature marshmallows = 1 large marshmallow
Marshmallow, crème

1 jar = 16 oz. marshmallows + 3 ½ Tbsp. corn syrup.  Melt together in a double broiler
Mayonnaise or Miracle Whip
Salads,
Dressing
1 c. = ½ c. yogurt + ½ c. mayonnaise
1 c. = 1 c. sour cream or plain yogurt
1 c. = 1 c. cottage cheese pureed in blender
Milk, Evaporated

1 c. = 1 c. light cream
Milk, Skim
Any
1 c. = 5 Tbsp. non-fat dry milk powder + water to equal 1 cup
1 c. = ½ c. evaporated skim milk + ½ c. water
Milk, Sour

1 c. sweet milk into which 1 Tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice has been stirred
Milk, Sweet

1 c. sour milk or buttermilk + ½ tsp. baking soda
Milk, Sweetened Condensed
Any
1 can = 1/3 c. + 2 Tbsp. evaporated milk + 1 c. sugar + 3 Tbsp. margarine.  Heat till mixed together.
1 ½ c. = ¾ c. sugar + 1/3 c. butter + 1/3 c. boiling water + 1 c. skim milk powder.  Combine all in a blender and mix until lumps are gone and milk is smooth.  Chill before using.
Milk, Whole
Any
½ c. evaporated milk + ½ c. water
1 c. reconstituted nonfat dry milk + 2 Tbsp. butter
1 c. = 1 c. soy or almond milk
Baking
1 c. = 1 c. water + 1 ½ tsp. butter.  Only for use in baking.
1 c. = 1 c. fruit juice or potato water.  Only for use in baking.
1 c. = 1 c. buttermilk + ½ tsp. baking soda.  Decrease baking powder in recipe by 2 tsp.
Molasses
Baking
1 c. = ¾ c. brown sugar + 1 tsp. cream of tartar.  Increase liquid in recipe by up to 5 Tbsp.
1 c. = 1 c. honey
1 c. = 1 c. dark corn syrup
1 c. = 1 c. maple syrup
Mustard
Baking
1 Tbsp. prepared mustard = 1 tsp. dry mustard or ½ tsp. mustard seeds
Any
1 Tbsp. prepared mustard = ½ tsp. dry mustard + 2 tsp. vinegar
N
Nutmeg
Any
1 tsp. ground = 1 tsp. ground allspice or ground cloves or ground mace
Nuts
Baking
1 c. = 1 c. browned rolled oats
O
Oil
Sauté
1 c. = 1 c. melted butter or margarine or shortening or bacon drippings
Baking
1 c. = 1 c. applesauce – will make product more moist
1 c. = 1 c. pureed pre-cooked beans (black beans, pinto beans, kidney beans, white beans, etc.)  Match the bean color to the dish. ie: chocolate cake = black beans.
Dressing
1 Tbsp. oil = 1 Tbsp. liquid lecithin.  For use in salad dressings – mix well with other ingredients.
Onion
Any
1 small onion = 4 Tbsp. (¼ c.) fresh chopped onion = 1 Tbsp. onion powder
1 small onion = 1 1/3 tsp. onion salt.  Decrease salt in recipe.
1 small onion = 1-2 Tbsp. instant (dried) minced onion
1 small onion = 1 tsp. onion powder
Orange
Any
1 medium orange = 6-8 Tbsp. orange juice or ¾ c. diced fruit or 2-3 Tbsp. grated rind (fresh)
Orange Peel (zest)
Any
2 tsp. dried orange peel = 1 tsp. orange extract
Oregano
Any
1 tsp. = 1 tsp. marjoram
P
Peppermint

¼ c. chopped fresh mint = 1 Tbsp. dried peppermint
Pimento

2 Tbsp. chopped = 3 Tbsp. red bell pepper, chopped
Poultry Seasoning

1 tsp. = ¼ tsp. ground thyme + ¼ tsp. ground sage + ¼ tsp. oregano + ¼ tsp. marjoram
Pumpkin Pie Spice

1 tsp. = ½ tsp. cinnamon + ¼ tsp. ginger + 1/8 tsp. allspice + 1/8 tsp. nutmeg + dash of cloves
R
Raisins

Equal amounts dried fruit or currants
Rice

Equal amounts of (cooked): brown rice, wild rice, bulgur or pearl barley, quinoa
Ricotta Cheese

1 c. = 1 c. cottage cheese + 1 Tbsp. skim milk
Rum

1 Tbsp. = ½ tsp. rum extract + water to make 1 Tbsp. total
S
Saffron

Equal amount of Turmeric
Seasoning Salt

1 c. = 2 ¼ tsp. paprika + 2 tsp. dry mustard + 1 tsp. dried oregano + 1 tsp. garlic powder + ½ tsp. onion powder
Shortening
Solid / Baking
1 c. = 1 c. minus 2 Tbsp. lard
1 c. = 1 c. + 2 Tbsp. butter or margarine.  Decrease salt in recipe by ½ tsp.
Melted
1 c. = 1 c. cooking oil.  Do not substitute unless recipe calls for melted shortening.
Sour Cream
Any
1 c. = ¾ c. sour milk (or buttermilk) + 1/3 c. margarine
1 c. = 1/3 c. buttermilk + 1 Tbsp. lemon juice + 1 c. cottage cheese.  Blend together.
Cooked Products
1 c. = 1 c. plain yogurt + 1 Tbsp. flour
1 c. = ¾ c. milk - ¾ tsp. lemon juice + 1/3 c. margarine
Sugar, Brown (dark)
Any
1 c. firmly packed = 1 c. firmly packed light brown sugar + 1 Tbsp. molasses
1 c. firmly packed= 1 c. granulated sugar + 2 Tbsp. molasses
1 c. firmly packed = 1 c. granulated sugar. 
Not recommended for white or sponge cakes.
Sugar, Brown (light)
Any
1 c. firmly packed = 2/3 c. dark brown sugar + 1/3 c. granulated sugar
1 c. = 1 c. granulated sugar + 1 Tbsp. corn starch (mix in blender until powdery)
Sugar, Confectioners (powdered)
Any
1 c. = ¾ c. honey.  Reduce another liquid in recipe by ¼ c. and add ¼ tsp. baking soda to neutralize acid in honey.  Reduce oven temp. by 25oF.
Alters flavor and makes baked goods moister, chewier and darker.
Sugar,
Granulated / White (regular, everyday sugar)
Any, Baking

1 c. = ¾ c. maple syrup + ¼ tsp. baking soda.  Reduce another liquid in recipe by ¼ cup.
1 c. = 1 ¾ c. packed powdered sugar.  Tends to make cookies less crispy.
1 c. = 1 ¼ c. corn syrup.  Reduce a liquid in recipe by ¼ c.  Will affect appearance and flavor slightly.  Never replace more than half of the sugar in any recipe with corn syrup.
1 c. = 1 1/3 c. molasses + 1 tsp. baking soda.  Reduce another liquid in recipe by 1/3 c.  Reduce oven temp. by 25 oF. 
Imparts a strong molasses flavor.  Replace no more than half of sugar in recipe with molasses.
1 c. = 1 c. honey.  Reduce a liquid in the recipe by ¼ c.
1 c. = 1 c. packed brown sugar.  Affects texture and reduces volume.  Makes cookies darker and chewier.
Substitute up to ¼ of the granulated sugar with powdered milk
T
Tapioca
Thicken
1 Tbsp. = 1 Tbsp. flour
Tomato Juice

1 c. = ½ c. tomato sauce + ½ c. water
Tomato Puree

1 c. = 6 oz. can tomato paste + water to equal 1 cup
Tomato Sauce

2 c. = 1 c. tomato paste + 1 c. water
Tomato Soup

2 c. = 1 c. tomato sauce + ¼ c. water
V
Vanilla Bean

1 bean = 2 Tbsp. vanilla extract
Vanilla Extract

Grated lemon or orange rind + cinnamon or nutmeg + liquid called for in recipe; together equaling amount of extract needed
Vinegar

1 tsp. = 1 tsp. lemon or lime juice
W
Whipped Cream
Any
1 c. = Chill a 13 oz. can evaporated milk for 12 hours.  Add 1 Tbsp. lemon juice and whip until stiff
1 c. = 2 large ripe bananas sliced + 3 tsp. sugar + 2 egg whites.  Whip together, chill, then serve
Wine, Red

1 c. = 1 c. grape or cranberry juice or stock (beef or chicken) or cooking wine or water
Wine, White

1 c. = 1 c. apple or white grape juice or chicken stock or cooking wine or water
Worcestershire Sauce

1 tsp. = 1 tsp. steak sauce
Y
Yeast, Compressed

2 oz. compressed yeast = 3 (¼ oz.) packets of dry yeast
Yeast

1 pkg. = 1 Tbsp. dry yeast or 1 cake yeast (6 oz.), compressed
1 pkg. = 2 ¼ tsp.
Yogurt
Any
1 c. = 1 c. buttermilk or sour cream
1 c. = 1 c. cottage cheese and 1 tsp. lemon juice.  Blend until smooth.

I have been compiling this list for years (literally).  Some of the replacements are from personal experimentation, and others are from various resources, which I have not taken the time to list.  I guess you'll just have to trust me...

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